Virus Structure, HIV Development and Treatment Guideline

HIV (human immunodeficiency) is a structural complex virus that attacks the immune system (fight of flight). Furthermore, if HIV is not treated then it can eventually weaken the immune system completely. AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) are series of illnesses and infections that are developed at the last stage of HIV. Once the immune system is full damaged then bacteria cells are easily able to invade the body, resulting in other risk factors.

Virus Structure

It has RNA that is surrounded by a protein capsid (coat) which is enclosed in a layer of viral protein. The lipid envelope is formed from the host cell membrane as the new virus particles emerge from the cell cytoplasm. Viral glycoprotein is the molecules sticking out of the envelope.

Virus structure

How HIV Develops

  • Virus cells invade the body through the body fluids of the infected person and then enter the host cells of the body (T cells).
  • The capsid is released inside the host cells
  • Inside the cytoplasm of the host cells, the genetic material (RNA) is released.
  • Then reverse transcriptase produces complement DNA by using RNA is a template.
  • Inside the host cells, viral proteins start produce.
  • These viral proteins then forms new viruses, which come out from the T cells and start infecting other T cells.
  • As the infection progresses, the helper T cells decrease in the body eventually causing a failing immune system.

HIV Symptoms

  • Fever most of the time.
  • Rashes more often
  • Loss of weight
  • Mylagia which is pain in the muscles
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Sores of the mouth, anus or genitals

Treatment of HIV

HIV medication slows down the progression of the virus inside the body, leading to fewer hosts T cells being destroyed.

  • TDF (tenofovir)
  • Either 3TC (lamivudine) or FTC (emitricitabine)
  • EFV (efavirenz)


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